Screen Printing is the process of applying a printed image to a surface using ink pushed through a stencil. Screen prints can be printed on different flat surfaces, most commonly paper or fabric, but also glass, wood, plastic or metal.
A screen is made by stretching fine polyester or nylon mesh over a wooden / metal frame. A stencil is then applied to the screen to prepare it for printing. A print is then made by pushing ink through the screen onto the surface below using a semi-flexible blade called a squeegee.
An image is built up in layers, with each colour being printed separately. Because screen printing inks are translucent, overlaying colours produces additional colours, for example yellow printed on top of blue will produce green. A simple screen print may be made up of two or three colours, a more complex image will have been built up over many more layers.
Screen printing originated in China in the Song Dynasty (960-1279AD). Originally a mesh made from silk was used, hence the alternative name for the process - silkscreen. Its use in the West was mainly as a commercial printing process until a group of artists in the USA formed the National Serigraph Society in 1940, with the aim of promoting the artistic aspects of the process and differentiating their work from industrial screen printing. The work of artists such as Andy Warhol, Sister Corita Kent, Robert Rauschenberg and Eduardo Paolozzi in the 1960s did much to popularise the technique.
Nowadays screen printing is a popular medium for many artists across disciplines, from fine art to design, illustration and fashion.
Photography is the process of capturing light with a camera, usually via a digital sensor or film, to create an image. It is used to document historical events, capture day-to-day moments and memories and also to tell stories. Photography is the quickest, most exact tool ever invented to record our lives. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek word ‘phos’, meaning ‘light’, and ‘graphê’, meaning ‘drawing’ – so ‘drawing' with light. Herschel also discovered the chemicals still used today for cyanotype printing.
Photography has come a long way in its relatively short history. The first camera, invented by a French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, was a basic plain box with a small hole that took blurry photos. This has evolved to the high-tech mini computers found in today's DSLR (digital single-lens reflex) cameras and smartphones used by 6.5 billion people all over the globe.
Today artists use photography as their tool for a wide range of subjects from examining maternity (Jenny Lewis), social and family landscape (Sian Davy), and documenting the social classes (Martin Parr). You might get a great photo by accident but you won’t be able to purposely get that photo without having creative control. Even with the ease of a smartphone the return to analogue and old processes such as cyanotype printing is on the increase.
Fabric printing is a term that covers different techniques and approaches for printing images, patterns or text onto cloth and with a wide range of applications, from lengths of fabric, t-shirts and bags to protest banners, fabric printing is a versatile medium.
Screenprinting - screen printing uses a frame with fine mesh stretched across it to transfer designs to fabric using stencils (see - what is screen printing).
The 1950’s/ 60’s was a heyday for Screenprinting onto Fabric, with inspiring designers such as Lucienne Day and Jacqueline Groag as well as artists including Anni Albers, Sonya Delauney, Barbara Hepworth and Henry Moore all commissioned to design prints for fabrics.
Blockprinting -block printing is a rewarding technique offering infinite possibilities for repeating patterns, overprinting and combinations of designs. It is a slow, absorbing and relaxing process.
Printing blocks can be made simply and quickly from household objects like potatoes. To create more durable and intricate blocks, the design is carved into a Lino block using lino cutting tools to carve away areas of the lino around the design. Fabric ink is applied to the block,the areas of the lino that are not carved away, pick up the ink.The block is then pushed down firmly onto the fabric and lifted to reveal the printed design.
The earliest surviving samples of block printed fabric are from China dating back to before the year 220.
Monoprinting - Mono printing is used to create one- off spontaneous prints, ideal for exploring a painterly, free approach. Designs can be created using single or multiple colours and be figurative or abstract. Monoprinting is an exciting medium and works well in combination with screen printing and block printing techniques.
Fabric printing offers two approaches to this medium.
Mono printing using acrylic sheet - Fabric printing ink is applied to an acrylic sheet, using various implements designs are drawn into the ink to create negative lines and marks, the acrylic sheet is flipped over onto the fabric and pressed to print. Stencils and found materials can also be introduced as well as direct painting methods.
Monoprinting using a screen - images are painted directly onto the mesh of the screen with fabric printing ink and then pulled through with a squeegee to create a positive print. This technique can be combined with paper and photographic stencils as well as found materials to achieve surprising outcomes.
Screen-Monoprinting is used to create one-off spontaneous prints, ideal for exploring a painterly, free approach. Images are painted directly onto the mesh of the screen with screenprinting ink and then pulled through with a squeegee. This technique can be combined with paper and photographic stencils as well as found materials to achieve surprising outcomes. Watercolours and other water-soluble mediums can also be explored which offer different textures and depth to work with.
Although a mono print is a one-off print, the ghost of the image remains on the mesh, this can be printed again to create a lighter version of the first print or re-painted and added to to create a new one
Screen -Monoprinting is an exciting medium, breaking the mould of screen printing as a flat graphic process and offering an element of unpredictability and surprise.
Many painters have produced work using this medium either in combination with stencils and relief blocks, for example, Peter Green and John Piper, or by direct painting on the screen such as Helen Frankenthaler, Jasper Johns ,Robert Rauchenberg and contemporary artist Katy Binks.
Collage is a way of making an artwork by combining different elements to make a new form. The term comes from the French word coller, to glue, and one of the most common forms of collage is made by sticking things onto a paper or card support. Popular materials used in collage are newspaper and magazine cuttings, coloured papers, string, photographs, found papers such as packaging, tickets, wrapping paper, and buttons, badges or other flat objects.
Collage is also a conceptual approach; a way of treating the content of an artwork to juxtapose unlikely or contrasting elements, often for humorous effect or critical comment. Surrealist and Dada artists such as Max Ernst and Hannah Hoch utilised the subversive potential of collage. Artists John Heartfield and Martha Rosler used collage for powerful political effect. Many artists have used collage in conjunction with other techniques, especially printmaking.